Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. Another key difference between the Paris Agreement and the Kyoto Protocol is its scope. While the Kyoto Protocol distinguishes between Schedule 1 countries and those not annexed to Schedule 1, this branch is scrambled in the Paris Agreement, as all parties must submit emission reduction plans.  While the Paris Agreement continues to emphasize the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility and respective capabilities” – the recognition that different nations have different capacities and duties to combat climate change – it does not offer a specific separation between developed and developing countries.  It therefore appears that negotiators will have to continue to address this issue in future rounds of negotiations, although the debate on differentiation could take on a new dynamic.  Although the expanded transparency framework is universal, the framework, coupled with the global inventory that takes place every five years, aims to provide “integrated flexibility” to distinguish the capabilities of developed and developing countries. In this context, the Paris Agreement contains provisions to improve the capacity-building framework.  The agreement recognizes the different circumstances of some countries and notes, in particular, that the technical review of experts for each country takes into account the specific capacity of that country to report.  The agreement also develops a capacity-building initiative for transparency to help developing countries put in place the necessary institutions and procedures to comply with the transparency framework.  Everyone who participated in COP21 made promises of programming.
These contributions are called “fixed national contributions” or in abbreviated INDC. At the time, the United States committed to reducing pollution by 26-28% in the United States from 2005 levels. On November 4, 2019, the United States informed the custodian of its withdrawal from the agreement, which will take effect exactly one year after that date.  President Trump is pulling us out of the Paris Climate Agreement. More than 75 heads of state are expected to announce new emission reduction targets or express broad intentions to help the most vulnerable countries cope with increasingly frequent climate disasters.